War is a state of organized armed conflict between two groups of people, typically nations. Periods of warfare tend to see increased mortality rates in the affected areas, aggression and social disruption, but also potentially increased rates of innovation as part of efforts to win. The largest war to date, in terms of the number of people who died as a result of said war, was the second World War, during which more than 60 million people died. The major participating nations in WWII were the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, the United States, the British Empire, Japan, the Republic of China, Italy and France. The first war to be recorded was one between Sumer, in modern Iraq, and Elam, in modern Iran, which took place in about 2700 BCE. The longest war to be declared was the Third Punic War, which began in 149 BCE. There was no declaration of peace between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian Republic when the contract of surrender was signed in 146BCE. The mayors of Rome and Carthage signed an official peace treaty in 1985, 2134 years after the war began. Finally, the shortest war ever declared began on August 27 1896. The British Empire issued an ultimatum to the Zanzibar Sultanate, which expired at 9:00AM East Africa Time. At 9:02AM about 1,000 British or pro-British troops stormed the royal palace, which was taken at 9:40AM. The entire war lasted 38 minutes.